Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning

Purpose:  Designed to evaluate a child's ability for learning and memorizing information.

Population:  Ages 5 through 17

Scales: Verbal Memory Index, Visual Memory Index, Learning Index, General Memory Index

Time:  45-60 minutes for Core Battery; 83-102 minutes for Expanded Battery.

Authors:  David Sheslow & Wayne Adams

Publisher:  Jastak Associates Inc

Description:  The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML) is designed to assess memory and learning functions across the school years.

Scoring:  There are nine subtests each yielding a norm-referenced score. Scores on three subtests are combined to give a Verbal Memory Index, a Visual Memory Index, and a Learning Index. The scaled scores for these three indexes are then summed to yield a General Memory Index.  Four of the nine subtests (Verbal Learning, Story Memory, Sound Symbol, and Visual Learning) ask for both immediate and delayed recall. Interpretations are provided, based on the age of the child tested, of the difference between the immediate and delayed score. Thus, the nine subtests of the WRAML yield a total of 18 scores. The GMI and Verbal, Visual, and Learning Indexes can be computed in percentiles and standard scores. Individual subtests yield scaled scores.

Reliability:  For the nine subtests, the reliability coefficients are usually between .80 and .85. When subtests are combined, reliabilities range from approximately .90 to .96. Test reliability is as high for younger as for older children.

Validity:  Construct validity, used in Rasch measurement, indicates excellent item definitions of variables measured and internal consistency Comparisons with the WMS-R for adolescents (16-17 year).  The WRAML appears superior to the WMS-R for use with adolescents. The WRAML is well validated, and is widely used in research. Information is also included concerning the standard error of measurement for each subtest and index for each age group, along with correlations between scores on the WRAML and other standardized instruments such as the McCarthy Memory Index, Stanford Binet Short-Term Memory, and the Wechsler Memory Scale.

Norms:  The test was normed and standardized based on samples of children from 5 to 16 years of age.  There were approximately 112 children in each subgroup (half-year intervals). The total norming group consisted of 2,363 individuals. The norming samples are representative of the US population with regard to gender, geographic region, and parental occupation.

Suggested use:  The major use for the WRAML is clinical in terms of providing incremental information in making an individual diagnosis. The WRAML is used to evaluate learning and school–related problems.  It is helpful in evaluating the effects of a language disability or problems with verbal memory retrieval, in identifying the inefficient or disorganized memory strategies of a bright but under-achieving student, and in pointing to the functional inefficiency of memory in a child with attention deficit.   It can be used to assess memory following head injury.