Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration

Purpose: Designed to assess visual-motor integration in children.

Population: Ages 2-8 (short form), 2-15 (long form).

Score: Pass/fail criteria.

Time: (10) minutes.

Authors: Keith E. Beery and Norman A. Buktenica.

Publisher: Follett Educational Corporation.

Description: The long form of the VMI consists of 24 geometric forms that are to be copied in a test booklet. These geometric forms are arranged in order of increasing difficulty, and an individual's score is calculated as the number of forms that have been copied successfully prior three consecutive failures. A separate age equivalent norm for each sex is also provided for each of the 24 items on the test. Educational assessment is the stated purpose for which the test has been designed, with particular emphasis place on the preschool group.

Scoring: Scoring procedures contain a high amount of subjectivity, but the authors have made an effort to provide scoring criteria included in the manual.

Reliability: No report of reliability is made in the administration and scoring manual. The technical report presents a collection of reliability coefficients, most of which were obtained from small samples and some samples of mentally retarded children. An internal consistency reliability (K-R 20) of .93 was computed for an unknown portion of the standardization population consisting of 594 children from suburban schools. Test-retest reliability over a two-week period, obtained for another portion of the standardization population consisting of 171 children from rural schools, was .83 for boys and .87 for girls. These coefficients were obtained from the entire age range and should be considered high.

Validity: A correlation of .89 between scores on the VMI and chronological age is the only validity evidence reported in the administration and scoring manual. This procedure provides a verification of only the developmental sequence of the items. The technical report describes an amount of empirical evidence that tangentially points to test validity, but no extensive prediction studies using an outside criterion have been conducted. One study that includes 342 subjects indicates that the VMI correlates .50 with reading achievement for first grade children, while results of another study using approximately 60 subjects at three grade levels show that the correlation with mental age decreases from .59 to .38 from the first to the seventh grade.

Norms: Standardization of the test was accomplished by using a group of 1,039 children from Illinois. Over one-half (57%) of the group selected were from suburban schools, while the remainder were selected from schools in urban (26%) and rural (17%) areas. All the groups of children were identified by school officials as average so as to create an average standardization population. The age levels for the suburban group were fairly well represented.

Suggested Uses: Recommended uses include assessment of visual-motor integration in educational, clinical, and research settings.