Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception

Purpose: Designed to assess visual perception skills in children.

Population: Ages 4-8.

Score: Perceptual Quotient.

Time: (30-45) minutes.

Author: Marianne Frostig.

Publisher: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.

Description: The Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP) is a test designed to assess visual perceptual skills in children. It provides information that includes 1) an estimation of the overall visual perception ability of the child and 2) a delimitation of the distinct visual perception difficulties in need of training.

Scoring: The five DTVP subtests are presumed to measure five distinct subareas of visual perception: Eye Motor Coordination, Figure Ground, Constancy of Shape, Position in Space, and Spatial Relationships. Raw scores are obtained for each of the subtests and then converted to Age Equivalents or Perceptual Ages (PAs) and Scale Scores (SSs). The total test results are expressed in Perceptual Quotient (PQ) and percentile rank scores.

Reliability: The authors report three test-retest reliability studies. The reliability coefficients based on two- to three-week intervals for the total test (PQ) ranged from .69 to .98. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the subtests (SS) were lower, ranging from .29 (Subtest 1) to .80 (Subtest 3), with most coefficients falling in the .50- .60 range. Split-half reliability coefficients for the total test ranged from .78 (8-9 years) to .89 (5-6 years). Coefficients for the DTVP subtests ranged from .35 to .96, with The Figure Ground subtest (2) showing the highest reliability (.91-.96) and The Position in Space subtest (4) showing the lowest reliability (.35-.70).

Validity: Correlations between scores on the DTVP and teacher ratings of classroom adjustment, motor coordination, and intellectual functioning were .44, .50 and .50, respectively. Correlations between scores on the DTVP and the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test ranged from .32 to .46 for Kindergartners and first- and second-graders. Factor analytic studies reported by other researchers have indicated that a single perceptual factor exists rather than five independent factors represented by each subtest. This suggests that the PQ is a valid overall measure of visual perception but the DTVP’s ability to differentially assess specific areas of visual perception is questionable.

Norms: The DTVP was standardized based on 2,116 normal school children between the ages of 3-9 years. The sample was drawn from a restricted area and was predominantly middle class (93%) in nature. Children from low socioeconomic groups and minority groups were poorly represented with only a small number of Hispanics and Asians included. No black children were represented.

Suggested Uses: Recommended as part of a larger assessment battery of visual-perceptual skill development.