Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test

Purpose: Designed to measure general intelligence.

Population:  ages 11 to 85+.

Scales:  Crystallized Scale (Gc), Fluid Scale (Gf), Measures of Delayed Recall, Mental Status, Total

Time:.  (58-73) minutes for Core Battery; (83-102) minutes for Expanded Battery.

Authors: Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman

Publisher:  American Guidance Service Inc.

Description: The Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) is an individually administered intelligence test battery composed of three intelligence scales: Fluid (Gf), Crystallized (Gc), and Composite Intelligence  The tests for fluid scale include paired-associative learning, deductive reasoning and a test of both inductive and deductive reasoning.  The tests for crystallized scores contain measures of lexical knowledge and listening ability.  They require synthesis and integration, and memory for meaningful material.  In addition to the six core battery subtests, the Expanded Battery contains an alternate test for the fluid score that involves visual memory, analysis and synthesis, and an alternate test for crystallized score assessing general factual knowledge, long term retrieval and integration of facts, and comparing immediate and delayed memories.  All KAIT subtests were constructed following Piaget's stage of formal operations and Luria and Golden's conception of planning ability. The 10 items on the Mental Status subtest are designed to assess attention and orientation in time and space, and performance is classified as Average, Below Average, or Lower Extreme. The category of Lower Extreme is subdivided into Mild, Moderate, and Severe Deficit, and  for  individuals in this range, the Kaufmans suggest administration of the Famous Faces subtest only.

Scoring: These six subtests comprise the Core Battery of the KAIT and, together, yield the Composite IQ, an index of general intelligence.   The standard IQ scores have M=100 and SD=15.  The standard scores of the ten subtests have M=10 and SD=3 and are called subtest scaled scores.

Reliability: Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .87 (Fluid IQ Scale) to .97 (Crystallized IQ Scale). In general, the KAIT IQ scales are sufficiently reliable regarding general intellectual ability and Fluid and Crystallized cognitive functioning. The subtests test-retest reliability coefficients were below .80 and should be used in conjunction with other data

Validity:  The information presented suggests that KAIT scores show a developmental progression similar to what might be expected if the tests measured crystallized and fluid intelligence. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the KAIT does indeed measure two factors similar in structure to the organization of the test. The crystallized factor is similar to the verbal factor found for the Wechsler tests, whereas the fluid scale appears relatively distinct from a Wechsler perceptual organization factor. Multi-sample confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the KAIT does indeed measure the same abilities across its age span. In correlations with other tests, the Crystallized scale appears to correlate well with other measures of crystallized ability, but the Fluid scale does not always behave in the manner that would be predicted if it were indeed a measure of fluid intelligence.

Norms: The normative sample included 2,000 individuals ages 11 to 85+ years, spanned 13 age levels with at least 125 individuals at each level.  The sample was representative of the US population census for gender, socioeconomic status (examinee or parental education levels), and race or ethnic group.

Suggested use:  The KAIT is considered a viable alternative to the Wechsler Scales as a measure of general intellectual functioning, and has shown its potential utility for making differential diagnoses.  The KAIT Fluid Scale and Wechlser Scale can be used to supplement each other for additional information about cognitive abilities.  The KAIT may be useful in cross-battery approach to intellectual assessment.