Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Purpose: Designed to classify individuals according to Jungian theory.

Population: High school and college students.

Score: Two types of scores on the four given dimensions.

Time: Not reported.

Authors: Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine C. Briggs.

Publisher: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.

Description: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a forced-choice, self-report inventory that attempts to classify individuals according to an adaptation of Carl Jung’s theory of conscious psychological type. There is the assumption that human behavior, perceived as random and diverse, is actually quite orderly and consistent. This view supposes that the observed variability is due to "certain basic differences in the way people prefer to use perception and judgment." The MBTI should be regarded "as affording hypotheses for further testing and verification rather than infallible expectations of all behaviors."

Scoring: The MBTI classifies individuals along four theoretically independent dimensions. The first dimension is a general attitude toward the world, either extraverted (E) or introverted (I). The second dimension, perception, describes a function and is divided between sensation (S) and intuition (N). The third dimension, also a function, is that of processing. Once information is received, it is processed in either a thinking (T) or feeling (F) style. The final dimension is judging (J) versus perceiving (P).

Reliability: With test-retest intervals from five weeks to 21 months, reliability coefficients range from .73 to .83 for E-I, .69 to .87 for S-N, .56 to .82 for T-F, and .60 to .87 for J-P. Phi coefficient estimates measuring internal consistency range from .55 to .65 (E-I), .64 to .73 (S-N), .43 to .75 (T-F), and .58 to .84 (J-P). These reliabilities are similar to other self-report inventories.

Validity: The MBTI manual provides correlational data with the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values (AVL), the Cray-Wheelwright Psychological Type Questionnaire (also known as the Jungian Type Survey), The Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS), the Personality Research Inventory (PRI), the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), and the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB), among others. The Sixteen Personality Factors Test (16PF) and the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale have also been correlated with the MBTI. These numerous correlational studies indicate that ". . . a wealth of circumstantial evidence has been gathered and results appear to be quite consistent with Jungian theory." Examination of data on individual MRTI scales demonstrates the behaviors and attitudes which the MBTI appears to tap, suggesting a strong argument for construct validity.

Norms: No general adult sample distribution is available; high school or college distributions are the comparison groups. Little empirical information is available on minorities or on blue-collar workers.

Suggested Uses: Recommended for use in research or clinical settings.