Personality Assessment Inventory

Purpose:  Designed to provide information relevant to clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and screening for psychopathology.

Population:  Ages 18 years to adult.

Scales:  Inconsistency, Infrequency, Negative Impression, Positive Impression, Somatic Complaints, Anxiety, Anxiety- Related Disorders, Depression, Mania, Paranoia, Schizophrenia, Borderline Features, Antisocial Features, Alcohol Problems, Drug Problems, Aggression, Suicidal Ideation, Stress, Nonsupport, Treatment Rejection, Dominance, Warmth.

Total Time:  (40-50) minutes.

Author:  Leslie C. Morey

Publisher: Psychological Assessment Resources

Description:  The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), is a self-report inventory of adult psychopathology. It was designed as a multidimensional alternative to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for assessing abnormal personality traits. The PAI is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 344 items (scored on a 4-point ordinal scale: F = False; ST = Slightly True; MT = Mainly True; VT = Very True). The PAI includes current items, and avoids colloquial and slang expressions. Items considered potentially biased (on gender, ethnic, economic, religious or other grounds) were excluded.  The PAI manual is both comprehensive and informative.

Scoring:  The PAI has 22 non-overlapping scales which include 4 validity scales, 11 clinical scales, 5 treatment scales, and 2 interpersonal scales (10 scales are further subdivided into 31 conceptually distinct subscales). Most scales consist of 8, 12, or 24 items with an average grade 4 reading level. Validity scales measure response Inconsistency, Infrequency, Negative Impression, and Positive Impression. Raw scores are plotted on the Profile Forms, yielding T scores (M=50,SD=10).

Reliability:  Alpha coefficients of internal consistency for the 22 scales were median .81, median .82, and median .86 for the normative, college, and clinical samples. Inter item correlations were low, indicating independent content of most items within each scale Median test-retest coefficients over 2-4 weeks showed stability with median alphas exceeding .80.

Validity:  Concurrent validity correlations of the PAI validity, clinical, treatment, and  interpersonal scales with several other personality instruments (e.g., MMPI, STAI, Beck Scales, Wahler Physical Symptoms Inventory, Fear Survey Schedule) reveal many small to moderate coefficients, suggesting only relatively modest common variance. Exploratory factor analyses based on the scale and subscale intercorrelations for the standardization and clinical samples are methodologically questionable.

Norms:  There were three samples, all comprised of at least 1,000 individuals; community-dwelling adults stratified on gender, race, and age according to 1995 U.S. Census projections, clinical patients; and college students (all samples comprised at least 1,000 individuals).

Suggested use:  The PAI is intended to provide information relevant to clinical diagnoses, treatment planning and screening for psychopathology.