Psychosocial Pain Inventory

Purpose: Designed to asses the influence of psychosocial factors in chronic pain syndromes.

Population: Adults.

Score: Total score.

Time: (120) minutes.

Author: Robert K. Heaton, Ralph A. W. Lehman, and Carl J. Getto.

Publisher: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

Description: The Psychosocial Pain Inventory (PSPI) is a 25-item, eight-page structured interview designed to assess the influence of psychosocial factors in chronic pain syndromes. The instrument's development is based on solid evidence that suggests that psychosocial factors contribute significantly to an individual's reaction and adjustment to chronic pain. Items for the PSPI were derived from the research and theory.

Scoring: Psychosocial factors evaluated in this instrument include the following: 1) pain behavior (e.g., up time, time in bed), 2) social reinforcement, 3) life changes, 4) litigation, 5) financial status, 6) use of alcohol, 7) medication use. 8) coping strategies, 9) social environment, and 10) environmental stress. In addition, as a part of the assessment patients are asked questions concerning their personal and family histories, past and current medical histories, and reactions and adjustments to the pain and medical treatments.

Reliability and Validity: Essentially only one study reporting data regarding the Psychosocial Pain Inventory has appeared in the literature. No reliability studies have been completed by the authors. In addition, the validity data reported are sparse. Nevertheless, the PSPI does appear to have fairly good discriminant power. In a sample of 32 chronic pain sufferers researchers used the PSPI as an independent variable and report preliminary findings in which a stepwise-discriminant-function analysis was successful in predicting 94.4% of the patients who successfully completed medical treatment for pain and 85% of those 32 patients who did not respond to medical treatment.

Norms: The instrument was validated on 169 chronic pain patients (95 women and 24 men) seen at the Multidisciplinary Pain Clinic of the Univeristy of Colorado Health Science Center, with the average age being 45.3 years (SD = 12.5). Despite the average age of the normative sample, the instrument can be adapted to assess the functioning of all adult chronic pain sufferers.

Suggested Uses: The PSPI is recommended as a measure to assess the psychosocial factors influencing pain in research and clinical settings.