Purpose: Designed to assess families’ coping and adaptational responses to a disabled family member.
Population: Any family member.
Score: Percentile norms.
Time: (60) minutes.
Author: Jean Holroyd.
Publisher: Clinical Psychology Publishing Company, Inc.
Description: The Questionnaire on Resources and Stress (QRS) for Families with Chronically Ill or Handicapped Members was developed for the quantitative assessment of families' coping and adaptational responses to a disabled family member. The QRS consists of 285 self-administered, true-false items that form 75 rationally derived scales. These scales are grouped into three general response categories: Personal Problems (seven scales), Family Problems (three scales), and Problems of Index Case (five scales). The QRS is intended to measure sources of stress and variables that attenuate stress as well as family members' responses to stress. A 66-item short form (QRS-SF) can be used for screening purposes.
Scoring: The 15 scales on the full-length QRS are grouped and identified as follows: Personal Problems scales--Poor Health/Mood, Excess Time Demands, Negative Attitude toward Index Case, Overprotection/Dependency, Lack of Social Support, Overcommitment/Martyrdom, and Pessimism; Family Problems scales--lack of Family Integration, Limits on Family Opportunity, and Financial Problems; and Problems of Index Case scales--Physical Incapacitation, Lack of Activities for Index Case, Occupational Limitations for Index Case, Social Obtrusiveness, and Difficult Personality Characteristics. An appendix in the manual lists percentile norms for special populations.
Reliability: Reliability reported in the manual is limited to Kuder-Richardson 20 estimates for internal consistency. The KR-20 reliability correlation was .96 for the full-length QRS. Scale coefficients ranged from as low as .24 to .88 on the QRS, scales with fewer items produced lower internal consistency coefficients. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the QRS are not available.
Validity: The manual reports that QRS content validity was established "by having 12 experts select the most relevant items from a large pool during initial questionnaire development." Criterion and construct validity are not systematically addressed by the authors.
Norms: Norms for special populations of families with members with different handicapping conditions have been established for four major classifications: developmental disabilities, psychiatric problems, chronic medical illness, and neuromuscular disease. These norms are based on 329 cases, including 145 developmentally disabled children, 98 children with psychiatric problems, 49 children with medical illnesses (renal disease, leukemia, cystic fibrosis), and 37 children with neuromuscular diseases (Duchenne’s dystrophy, cerebral palsy).
Suggested Uses: The QRS is recommended for clinical and research