Test Anxiety Inventory

Purpose: Designed to measure test anxiety.

Population: High school and college students.

Score: Percentile ranking.

Time: (8-10) minutes.

Author: Charles D. Spielberger.

Publisher: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.

Description: The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) is a self-report inventory designed to measure test anxiety (TA) as a situation-specific personality trait. The TAI consists of 20 items or statements, and the respondents indicate on a four point Likert-type scale how often they experience the feeling described in each statement. The TAI provides a measure of total TA (TAI-T) as well as measures of two TA components--worry (W) and emotionality (E).

Scoring: The TAI is a brief instrument occupying one side of a page on which the 20 items are printed. The total TAI score (TAI-T) is based on all 20 items. Eight of the items measure the W component and 8 items measure the E. Four items that load on both subscales contribute to the TAI-T score but are not scored on either the W or E subscales. Percentile ranks are calculated from the raw scores.

Reliability: Test-retest reliabilities for TAI-T are reported for groups of high school, college, and graduate students over time periods ranging from two weeks to six months. Reliability was in the range of .80 to .81 for two-week to one-month periods with all groups. After six months, the reliability was .62 for a group of high school students. The alpha coefficients for TAI-T ranged from .92 to .96; for the subscales, alphas ranged from .83 to .91 for TAI-W, and from .85 to .91 for TAI-E.

Validity: The relationship between the TAI and its subscales with other anxiety measures (e.g., Sarason’s Test Anxiety Scale (TAS), Liebert & Morris’ Worry and Emotionality Questionnaire (WEQ), the STAI State and Trait Anxiety scales, and the STAI State Anxiety scale administered under examination stress conditions) all provide evidence of convergent validity. The correlation between the TAI-T score and the TAS was sufficiently high (.82 to .83) to suggest that the two scales measure essentially the same construct.

Norms: The normative sample consisted of high school and college students.

Suggested Uses: The TAI is recommended for use in research and clinical settings.