Wide Range Achievement Test

Purpose: Designed to measure reading recognition, spelling, and arithmetic computation.

Population: Ages 5-11, 12 and over.

Score: 3 scores: Spelling, Arithmetic, Reading.

Time: (20-30) minutes.

Authors: Joseph F. Jastak and Sarah Jastak.

Publisher: Jastak Associates, Inc.

Description: The Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) is a brief achievement test measuring reading recognition, spelling, and arithmetic computation. There are two levels; level I is normed for children ages 5-0 to 11-11; level II is normed for children aged 12 through adults aged 64.

Scoring: Norms provided for the 1978 edition include standard scores with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, percentile scores, and grade levels. The standard scores are scaled based on the norm group; the grade levels are arbitrarily assigned and can be interpreted only as rough references to achievement level. Only standard scores should be used for comparisons among scores.

Reliability: The manual reports split-half reliabilities of .98 for Reading at both levels, .94 for Arithmetic at both levels, .96 for Spelling I, and .97 for Spelling II. During the norming study, both levels of the WRAT were administered to children ages 9 through 14. Since there is overlap in skills tested between the high end of level I and the low end of level II, this provides another estimate of the reliability of both. On Reading and Spelling, split-half reliabilities ranged from .88 to .94 for different age groups; on Arithmetic they ranged from .79 to .89. These results indicate that overall the reliability of the WRAT is excellent.

Validity: The test most similar to the WRAT is the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT), another short, individually administered test which covers comparable material. In general the WRAT correlates very highly with the PIAT. The WRAT correlates moderately with various IQ tests, in the range of .40 to .70 for most groups and most tests.

Norms: The 1978 WRAT norms are based on 15,200 subjects for seven states. According to the manual, no attempt was made to make the sample representative of national characteristics. The manual states that minorities were represented, but gives no data on their representation. The sample was stratified by age, sex, and approximately by ability.

Suggested Uses: Recommended uses for the test described in the manual include comparing achievement of one person to another, determining learning ability or learning disability, comparing codes with comprehension in order to prescribe remedial programs, and informally assessing error patterns to plan instructional programs.

Wide Range Achievement Test -- Revised

Purpose: Designed to "measure the codes which are needed to learn the basic skills of reading, spelling, and arithmetic."

Population: Ages 5-0 to 11-11, 12-0 to 75.

Score: 3 scores: Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic.

Time: (15-30) minutes.

Authors: Sarah Jastak, Gary S. Wilkinson, and Joseph Jastak.

Publisher: Jastak Associates, Inc.

Description: The Wide Range Achievement Test--Revised (WRAT-R) is the sixth edition of the popular test that was first published in 1936. Like the earlier versions, the WRAT-R contains three subtests: Reading (recognizing and naming letters and words), Spelling (writing symbols, name, and words), and Arithmetic (solving oral problems and written computations). The authors of the WRAT-R stress that the test is designed to measure basic school codes rather than comprehension, reasoning, and judgement processes.

Scoring: The manual contains information to transform the raw scores into standard scores.

Reliability: The Rasch analysis provided person-separation and item-separation values and these are given as evidence of internal consistency. Traditional internal-consistency data, such as split-half or alpha coefficients, are not provided and are needed. Test-retest reliability coefficients range from .79 (Level 2 Arithmetic) to .97 (Level 1 Spelling), but no indication of the time interval between test and retest is given and the coefficients are based on small samples for only a few age groups in the schoolage range.

Validity: WRAT-R subtests have moderately high correlations with Woodcock-Johnson achievement subtests. The manual supplies two sources of evidence for construct validity: person and item-separation values and increasing raw scores with age. The manual reports very high correlations (i.e., .91 to .99) between the WRAT and WRAT-R, but the correlations were calculated using the WRAT-R norm sample and an "arbitrary" sample of previously administered WRATs. It appears that the correlations are not based on a sample of subjects who took both tests. Spruill and Beck found WRAT/WRAT-R correlations of .98, .97, and .71 for the Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic subtests, respectively.

Norms: A stratified national sampling plan was used for the standardization of the WRAT-R. A total of 5,600 subjects, or 200 subjects in each of 28 age groups from 5 to 74 years, composed the sample. Stratification variables included age, sex, race, geographical region, and metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan residence.

Suggested Uses: General uses for the test described in the manual include comparing achievement of one person to another, determining learning ability or learning disability, comparing codes with comprehension in order to prescribe remedial programs, and informally assessing error patterns to plan instructional programs.

Wonderlic Personnel Test

Purpose: Designed to measure general mental ability for aid in personnel selection.

Population: Adult employment applicants.

Score: Yields one total score.

Time: 12 (20) minutes.

Author: E.F. Wonderlic.

Publisher: E.F. Wonderlic & Associates, Inc.

Description: The Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT), so named to reduce the possibility that job applicants will think they are taking an intelligence test, was originally a revision of the Otis Self-Administering Tests of Mental Ability. The WPT is a 50-item, 12-minute omnibus test of intelligence. The items and the order in which they are presented provide a broad range of problem types (e.g., analogies, analysis of geometric figures, disarranged sentences, definitions) intermingled and arranged to become increasingly difficult. The WPT exists in 16 forms, and was designed for testing adult job applicants in business and industrial situations.

Scoring: The WPT yields one final score which is the sum of correct answers.

Reliability: The manual reports odd-even reliabilities, which are not appropriate for speeded tests; however, it also reports test-retest reliabilities of .82 to .94, and interform reliabilities of .73 to .95.

Validity: Correlations with educational level and/or academic achievement are between .30 and .80.

Norms: White adults across all occupational categories.

Suggested Uses: Suggested uses include as measure of general ability for employment screening, although it should be used with caution.

Word Association Test

Purpose: Designed to reveal associative connections between stimuli words and responses.

Population: Adults.

Score: N/A.

Time: N/A.

Authors: D. Rapaport, M. Gill, and R. Schafer.

Publisher: International Universities Press, Inc.

Description: The word association method is a psychological test intended to reveal associative connections between stimulus words and free verbal responses. Subjects are instructed to give discrete verbal responses to common stimulus words (usually nouns or verbs). Because verbalizations reflect ideation, it is assumed that the systematic study of associative thought can reveal information about an individualís personality characteristics, areas of emotional disturbances, and the like. Although the method has no necessary tie to any particular theory, it is usually employed as a projective technique.

Scoring: There are no formal scoring procedures employed with this method.

Reliability and Validity: The manual provides no reliability and Validity information. Very few validity and reliability studies have been undertaken because internal clinical judgment constitutes such an integral part of the approach.

Norms: Norms are included in the manual for normal college students and schizophrenics.

Suggested Uses: The Word Association Test is recommended as part of a comprehensive test battery in clinical and research settings.